Ligamentum teres injury FAI The term FAI describes deformities in hip joint morphology that results in impingement between the femoral neck and acetabulum.
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The impinging surfaces can irritate and damage the soft tissues of the hip joint, in particular, the acetabular labrum and the adjacent articular cartilage. Three types of deformities in the hip joint have been described; CAM type — Asphericity of the femoral head; term borrowed from the cam-lobes on engine cam-shafts Pincer type — over coverage of the anterosuperior acetabular wall; a deep socket.
Similar to the tips of pincer forceps Mixed type Patients with hip pain have a higher prevalence of articular anatomy abnormality.
Early specialist referral may be indicated in athletes where the prevalence of hip shape abnormality has been shown to be substantially higher than in the general population.
Treatments often involve targeted physiotherapy, which has shown good short-term outcomes in pain and function for patients with mild FAI, although there is limited experimental data. Surgical management may be considered for extra- and intra-articular hip pathologies when patients do not improve with non-operative care and where the symptoms are judged severe enough to justify the risks of surgery.
Arthroscopic Hip surgery may help with the management of trochanteric bursitis, the snapping hip, and morphological corrections for the treatment of FAI as well as soft tissue repairs e.
A growing body of literature now exists showing favourable outcomes of arthroscopic surgery for FAI in young adult and adolescent populations.